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شرح مبسط لضمائر الوصل في اللغة الانجليزية لطلاب الثانوية العامة

 
 
 
 

Relative Pronouns   ضمائر الوصل في اللغة الانجليزية

 
 
Relative Pronouns Relative clauses
 
(Who      whom      which     that      whose     where   -  when)
📌 تستخـدم ضمائر الوصل لربـط الجمـل ببعضهـا وتحـل محـل الإسـم أو الضمير المكـرر فى الجملة الثانيـة
 
Who = that
            يحل محل فاعل عاقل ( لا يمكن حذف الضمير )                                                              
    - The woman is in hospital. She was injured in the accident.  (who / that)
      The woman who / that was injured in the accident is in hospital.
Who = whom = that
تحل محل مفعول عاقل (يمكن حذف الضمير )                                                          
 
  - The boy was not at home. I wanted to talk to him. (whom / who / that)
      The boy whom / who / that I wanted to talk to was not at home.
      The boy I wanted to talk to was not at home.
 
 
Which  = that
    تحل محل فاعل غير عاقل (لا يمكن حذف الضمير ) أو مفعول غير عاقل ( هنا يمكن حذفه )  
   
   - Hala works for a company. It manufactures computers. (which / that)
      Hala works for a company which / that manufactures computers.
   - The shoes don’t fit very well. Nadia bought them. (which / that)
      The shoes which / that Nadia bought don’t fit very well.
      The shoes Nadia bought don’t fit very well.
   يمكن أن نستخدم which  لتحل محل فكرة كاملة :
- Ramy passed the driving test. This surprised everybody. (which)
   Ramy passed the driving test which surprised everybody.
Whose
تستخدم للملكية وتحل محل صفات الملكية وهى                                                                              
      ( my , his , her , its , our , you , their )    
   - We met a lady. Her daughter has just got married. (whose)
     We met a lady whose daughter has just got married.
That 's the man.          His son succeeded.                              ( whose )
That 's the man whose  son succeeded.
Where
                                           تحل محل ظرف مكان  
    
   - This is the school. I learned in it.  ( where)
      This is the school where I learned.
    -This is the house.                We live in it now.            ( Where )
       This is the house where we live.
When
                                             تحل محل ظرف زمان
   
   - June is the month. I go on holiday in this month. (when)
   * June is the month when I go on holiday.

@ ملاحظات هامة :

?   يمكن حذف ضمير الوصل إذا جاء مكان المفعول:
-The boy was not at home. I wanted to talk to him.
    * The boy who/ whom / that I wanted to talk to was not at home.
* The boy I wanted to talk to was not at home.

   ? يمكن حذف ضمير الوصل في الحالات الآنية  ( مع ضرورة حذف verb to be  أيضا ) :

      1- إذا كان بعد ضمير الوصل مبنى للمجهول
-The man who was injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
     *The man injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
     2- إذا كان بعد ضمير الوصل جار و مجرور ( حرف جر واسم ) :
-The boy who is in the library wants to borrow some books.

   The boy in the library wants to borrow some books.
3- إذا كان بعده صفة أو صفة متبوعة باسم  :
- Dr Magdy Yacoub who is a famous heart surgeon was interviewed on TV.
  Dr Magdy Yacoub, a famous heart surgeon, was interviewed on TV.
? إذا حذف ضمير الوصل و كانت الجملة مبنى للمعلوم  Active نستخدم ( : ( v.+ ing
- Students who arrived late missed the start of the experiment.
Students arriving late missed the start of the experiment.
    2- لاحظ أن  that / who  لا يسبقهما حرف جر بينما يمكن استخدام حرف جر قبل whom /which / whose
- This is Ali that I told you about.
- This is Ali who / whom I told you about.
- This is Ali about whom I told you.
- The train by which I came arrived late.
- The train that I came by arrived late.
     3- عادة تستخدم that  بعد all / much / little
- That was all that he had said.
 
 
Exercise
Rewrite using the word(s) in brackets:-
1.  That\'s the boy.                                    His brother sits next to me.               ( whose )
2. He saw the thieves.                             They robbed the bank.                        ( The thieves who )
3. Ahmed will come on Saturday.           I'll be at home on that day.                 ( when )
4. Seven o\'clock is when I usually have breakfast.                                            ( which )
5. Only clever students can do this exercise.                                                      ( who )
6. A lot of people spend their summer holiday in Alexandria .                         ( where )
7. I never saw much bad work . Ali has done it .                                                  ( which )
8. I\'m writing a letter to my aunt . She lives in France .                                    ( who )
Find the mistake in each of the following sentences and write it correctly:
1-  John, which grew up in London, has lived in Egypt for 1 5 years.
2-  The university which my uncle works is in Cairo.
3-  The university where I want to go to is near my uncle.
4-  My uncle Ahmed, where is a businessman , lives in Cairo.
5-  Tanta, whose is Egypt\'s fifth largest city, has many mosques.
6-  Ahmed\'s clothes company, where he started in 1950, exports all over the world.
7-  My cousin, where is a research chemist, works in the food industry.
8-  My brother went to Oxford University which he studied economics.
9.  Shady has not too more to buy a shirt
10.  She has finished her work a moment ago.
3. Write an e-mail of seven sentences to your English friend.
Your friend is coming to Egypt to visit in the spring and wants some advice on what the weather will be like and what he or she should bring. Your friend’s name is Pat and his or her e-mail address is Pat@example.com. Your name is Nour and your e-mail address is Nour@example.com.

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