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كيف تفهم بطريقة بسيطة تحويل الكلام المباشر الى الكلام غير مباشر Indirect Speech

How to understand in a simple way to convert Indirect Speech

Indirect Speech الكلام غير المباشر


1- Reported speech: الكلام غير المباشر
و هو الكلام المنقول و فيه نغير الكلمات التى قيلت لتتناسب مع الجملة و هناك بعض القواعد التى يجب إتباعها مثل الأزمنة و الضمائر
Statement الجملة الخبرية
? خطوات تحويل الجملة من كلام مباشر direct إلى كلام غير مباشر direct :
1- نحول فعل القول كما يلى:
Direct
Reported
Direct
Reported
said to
told
said
said
2- نحذف الأقواس و نربط بكلمة that التى يمكن الاستغناء عنها
3- نغير الضمائر المتكلم والمخاطب و الملكية الى ضمائر غاب حسب المعنى.
** I he, she **We they
**You he, she ,they
**my his,her your his, her, their
**our their
4- إذا كان فعل القول مضارع أو مستقبل say ,says ,will say)) تتغير الضمائر فقط داخل الأقواس ولا تتغير الأزمنة أو الظروف.
أما إذا كان فعل القول ماضى نغير الأزمنة كما يلى :

يتم تغيير الأفعال الناقصة كما يلى:

Direct speech

Indirect speech
Present simple ( … / …s)

Past simple ( ……ed)
Present cont. (am, is, are + v + ing)

Past cont. ( was , were + v + ing)
Present perfect (have, has + p.p.)

Past perfect (had + p.p.)
Past simple ( ……ed)

Past perfect (had + p.p.)
Present modals (will, can, shall, may , must + inf.)

Past modals (would, could, should , might , had to+ inf)
am / is / are going to

Was / were going to

كما نغير أسماء الإشارة و المكان و الكلمات الدالة على الزمن كما يلى:


Direct  مباشر  
Reported   غير مباشر
Direct  مباشر
Reported   غير مباشر
this
that
these
those
here
there
now
then
ago
before
today
that day
tonight
that night
tomorrow
the next day
next year
the following year
yesterday
the day before
last year
the year before


Examples:
Direct Speech كلام مباشر
Reported Speech  كلام غير مباشر
"I live in London," he said.
He said (that) he lived in London.
"The phone is ringing," she said.
She said (that) the phone was ringing.
"Jo left ten minutes ago," they said.
They said (that) Jo had left ten minutes before.
"Jo has just left," they said.
They said (that) Jo had just left.
"I'll see you tomorrow," she said.
She said (that) she'd see him the next day.
"I'm going to learn to drive next month," he said.
He said (that) he was going to learn to drive the following month.
"You can go home," she said.
She said (that) I could go home.
"I didn't finish my homework last night," he said.
He said that he hadn't finished his homework the night before.

ملاحظات هامة :

1- إذا كان الكلام المباشر عبارة عن حقيقة علمية لا يحدث أى تغيير.
- He said, "Water boils at 100 ° C." (He said that………..)
He said that water boils at 100 ° C.
2- إذا كان فعل القول ماضي و الكلام قد انتهى منذ فترة وجيزة تتغير الضمائر فقط داخل الأقواس ولا تتغير الأزمنة أو الظروف. وهذه هي الكلمات الدالة :
now, just now, a moment ago, a minute ago
- He said just now, \"I\'ll visit you next week." (He said just now that)
He said just now that he\'ll visit me next week.

3- فى حالة قاعدة if يتغير الزمن فى الحالة الأولى فقط.
- He said to me, "I'll buy a car if I have enough money." (He told……….)
He told me that he'd buy a car if he had enough money.
4- فى حالة وجود جملتين نربطهما بـ and that أو and added that
- He said, "I can't do my homework today. I'll do it later."
He said that he couldn't do his homework that day and that he\'d do it later.
5- إذا كان المخاطب داخل الأقواس يوضع خارج الأقواس بعد فعل القول
- He said, "I'll visit you, Ali." (He told….)
He told Ali that he would visit him.
@ Choose the correct answer:
1- Ahmed says that he (went - gone - goes - had gone ) to Alex every year.
2- He (told - said - asked - ordered) he was living with his uncle.
3- He said that he (had written - would write - is writing - was writing) a letter then.
4- He told me that he (will reach - would reach - reached - had reached) Cairo the
following week.
5- Samir (said - told - asked - spoke) he had never been to Luxor.
6- He said that he (would see-has seen-had seen-was seen) a new film on TV the night before.
7- He told me that he (will visit-would visit-is visiting-visited) me the next day.
8- He said just now that he (bought - has bought - would buy - will buy ) a new car next month.
9- He said that he ( doesn't go - wouldn't go - hadn't gone - won't go ) to school the previous day.
10-Hesham said he (has - had- is - were) flown to Istanbul the previous week.
11- He told her that he (bought-is buying-would buy-had bought) all his needs alone the following month.
12- He said just now that he (would visit-will visit-had visited-was visiting) me next week.
@ Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
1- He said," I will marry next week.". (He said that ………)
2- Hany said to me, "I'm reading a story now." (He told ……)
3- Hoda said to me," I have finished my work." (He told ……)
4- He says, "I will marry next week." (He says that …..)
5- He said," I must drive for my work. I have my own car." (He said that ………)
6- I was late for work this morning." (Mona told me(
7- Adel said ," Our train has just arrived , Sami" (Adel told)
8- "I've seen the film before." (She told me)
9- "We went to the cinema yesterday to see the new film." (They told us that)

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